The Macedonian-Adrianople Movement in Bulgaria, 1878–1912


The Macedonian-Adrianople movement in Bulgaria in the period 1878–1912 is an integral and indivisible part of Macedonia’s liberation struggle, as well as its most significant external source of moral and material support. 

Throughout its existence, it underwent several forms of organization and through various periods. The first associations of refugees and expatriates from Macedonia and Adrianople Thrace were established in the times of the Kresna-Razlog Uprising of 1878–1879 and other forms of protest against the resolutions of the Congress of Berlin. In the early 80’s of the 19th century all these associations were involved in the movement for the Unification of the Principality of  Bulgaria and Eastern Rumelia. In Stefan Stambolov’s term of office their activity was subjected to institutional pressure and restrictions. 

An essentially new period came in 1895, when the Macedonian Committee was established in Sofia (and was later renamed to Supreme Macedonian Committee) as the governing body of a consolidated union of associations from the country and abroad. After the Chetnik [Detachment] Campaign in Macedonia of the same year, some separation processes were set in motion, but they were overcome in 1899, when representatives of the secret officers’ brotherhoods of the Bulgarian army entered the Committee. 

As a token of unity, the organization was renamed to Macedonian-Adrianople Organization in Bulgaria, with a Supreme Macedonian- Adrianople Committee in Sofia. In the beginning of 1903, under external pressure, the government eliminated the Organization. Its activity was continued by the Macedonian- Adrianople charity associations. In the aftermath of the Ilinden-Preobrazhenie Uprising, the Macedonian-Adrianople movement went through a crisis of organization and ideas, which was only overcome in the wake of the Balkan War.   

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