The Bulgarian dialects in Albania: Vrubnik village


As a dialect of the Bulgarian language and sharing its linguistic characteristics, the Vrabnik dialect in Albania possesses a systematic and encompassing in function morphological category of definitiveness in nouns. The article system consists of one member only, as in most Bulgarian dialects. The same type of system functions in the Bulgarian literary language.
The aim of the present research is to reveal the mechanism of using the article with nouns, as well as to shed light on some of its special features.
Masculine nouns produce singular definite forms following a common model, as is with most Eastern and Western Bulgarian dialects. The definite article for these forms is —o and it is realized through the allomorphs o or у: бракаро (wedding-guest), гъзаро (bottom), прегаче (apron), сиромао (poor person), разбойо (robber), etc.
Feminine nouns, regardless of the ending in the indefinite form, receive a singular definite article —та: бълвата, врешчата, земата, скалата, черепната, гранката, etc.
The singular neuter nouns receive a singular definite article —то, also regardless of the ending of the indefinite form: бърдилото, гувендото, дървото, чендото, черевото, etc.
Both in the literary Bulgarian language and in the Vrabnik dialect, when choosing an article morpheme for nouns in the plural, the so-called vocal harmony is displayed. Thus, masculine nouns in the singular receive the definite article —те (бройовите, сърповите, царовите), and one-syllable nouns with collective meaning — the definite article —та (стремйата, търната, шопйата). With little exceptions, the definite article for multiple-syllable male nouns in the plural is —те: говендарите, мачорите, пъндарите. With little exceptions, the definite article for the plural —те is given to feminine nouns as well: бълвите, гъмбите, къшчите. In neuter nouns, if the indefinite form ends in —a, the definite article for the plural is —та (зърната, кросната, именишчата, гърненишчата, лозйата, черевйата, гробишчата). If the indefinite form ends in —и, the definite article is —те (чудиите, очите, ушите).
In the discussed dialect one often comes upon “weird” constructions, whose grammatical meaning is related to the category of definitiveness. They are combinations of demonstrative pronouns and a noun with an article. In these constructions, which are specific for the dialect, one discovers an interesting combination of simultaneous demonstrativeness and definitiveness. These constructions are formal expressions of a special kind of definitiveness in the Vrabnik dialect:
Татуй децте барае, барае и ойдое дур на ено место. Найдое ено село. О татуо селто и фати вечерта и ойдое о ен поп.
This kind of definitiveness is not an isolated phenomenon exclusive for the dialect in the village of Vrabnik. It can be also found in the region of the neighbouring Kostour dialects, in the more distant Lerin dialect, and in some Thracian dialects.
In this entirety of a demonstrative pronouns and a noun with an article there is a simultaneous presence of demonstrativeness and definitiveness.  At the contemporary stage of the Bulgarian language development these two categories are independent and they contradict each other. The simultaneous use of two categories in opposition cannot result in ‘resonance’. When placed in a common construction, they do not lead to the reinforcement of demonstrativeness, and even less — of definitiveness. The result is the appearance of a special type of definitiveness — a specifying, concretizing, actualizing one. We employ the term used by S. Ivanchev and call it pleonastic definitiveness.

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